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Prostate Cancer in Younger Men

Although the median age for prostate cancer diagnosis is roughly 66 years old, with the highest proportion of those diagnosed between 65 and 74 years old, it is still possible to develop prostate cancer earlier on in life.1 Information on early-onset prostate cancer as well as its causes and trends are not very common in the literature.

Despite the general lack of information, researchers and medical professionals have become increasingly more interested in this condition, as the number of cases of early-onset prostate cancer has increased by roughly six-fold over the past 30 years.2 This increase could be due to a variety of factors, including environmental factors, such as smoking or diet, as well as more thorough and earlier screening methods.

Early-onset prostate cancer is roughly defined as prostate cancer that is diagnosed before age 55, and most research points towards genetic factors being responsible for its occurrence.3-5 Roughly 2% of deaths related to prostate cancer occur in those 35-54 years old.1

How common is prostate cancer in young men?

Common estimates suggest that early-onset prostate cancer comprises roughly 10% of all prostate cancer occurrences. As mentioned previously, the number of cases of early-onset prostate cancer is increasing, and has increased roughly six-fold from 5.6 to over 30 cases per 100,000 person-years since 1986. This increase could be due to a wider range of those being screened for the condition, as well as more refined screening methods, such as tests for PSA (prostate-specific antigen) in the blood. Additionally, and the same as with all prostate cancer diagnoses, the largest proportion of those diagnosed are African American males.1,2

What does it mean to get prostate cancer as a younger man?

Early-onset prostate cancer is currently being investigated further to better define this group and their case presentations. Typically, those who are diagnosed at a younger age have been found to possess more genetic variants, or mutations that can contribute to cancer. These individuals also typically have a familial history of the condition, with the greatest risk in those who have one or more close relative with early-onset prostate cancer. Findings like these suggest that early-onset prostate cancer is tied more to genetic factors that to environmental factors, such as smoking or diet.

General findings for those with high grade or stage early-onset prostate cancer trend towards a higher cause-specific mortality than their older counterparts. This means that individuals with aggressive early-onset prostate cancer are typically more likely to die due specifically to their prostate cancer. However, this could also be due to more comorbid conditions present in older men. For example, a male at age 90 might have more age-specific life-threatening conditions in addition to his prostate cancer that may threaten his life more than a slow-spreading cancer.

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Prognosis difference?

The 5-year relative survival rate for the early-onset group is still very high, and is estimated to be 98%, however, this number is still lower than the nearly 100% five-year survival rate for slightly older men. The only men who show comparable survival rates under 100% are men ages 80 and older (who may also be dying of causes other than prostate cancer).

The good news though, is that the large majority of early-onset prostate cancer cases are local or low-grade. Even those that are found when they have spread beyond the prostate are typically lower in grade overall for younger men. Despite this, because long-term effects are not as well distinguished in this group, many sources recommend initiating treatment immediately for this population instead of taking the watch and wait approach that is common in older men.

Additionally, another advantage in this group is that there are typically more treatment options than in older men, as individuals are usually treatment-naïve (meaning haven’t had any other prostate cancer treatments or hormone therapies) and have less comorbidities that could decrease treatment options. For this reason, younger individuals with a Gleason score of 5-7 have a higher survival rate than older men with this same classification. This means that although the risk of cancer-specific death is higher for younger men, when their cancer is lower in grade and more local, they have a better response to treatment than older men with the same cancer characteristics.2-6

What should I look for?

Regardless of age, prostate cancer often starts without warning signs until it has advanced further. This is why it is important to engage in appropriate screenings and talk with your provider regularly about your risk and family history of cancer.

For young men especially, it may be beneficial to see a genetic counselor to look at your specific genetic risk. When prostate cancer manifests, early symptoms include changes in urination, such as increased urgency and frequency of urination, blood in the urine or semen, interrupted or changed flow of urine stream, painful urination, erectile dysfunction, and pain in the pelvis, hips, thighs or lower back.

Rare atypical prostate cancers in very young men

One very rare form of prostate cancer, classified as a sarcoma, is typically found in younger men between 35 and 60 years old. This type of cancer makes up less than 0.1% of all cases of primary prostate cancer (meaning cancer that originates in the prostate). Sarcomas can infiltrate the soft tissues in the body. These tissues include our muscles and nerves. Since this tissue is essentially everywhere in our body, sarcomas can develop just about anywhere.

Sarcomas can break away from their original locations and spread to the bones or lungs. Two of the more common types of prostate cancer sarcomas are leiomyosarcomas and rhabdomyosarcoma which can affect very young men, including children. The important thing to note however, is that these atypical prostate cancers are incredibly rare.7-9

Written by: Casey Hribar | Last reviewed: June 2019
  1. SEER Cancer Stat Facts: Prostate cancer. National Cancer Institute. Published April 2017. Accessed June 3, 2019.
  2. Salinas CA, Tsodikov A, Ishak-Howard M, Cooney KA. Prostate cancer in young men: An important clinical entity. Nature Reviews Urology. 13 May 2014; 11, 317-323. Accessed August 12, 2017.
  3. Gupta S, Gupta A, Saini AK, et al. Prostate cancer: How young is too young? Curr Urol. Jan 2017;9(4), 212-215. Accessed August 12, 2017.
  4. Lange EM, Salinas CA, Zuhlke KA, et al. Early onset prostate cancer has a significant genetic component. Prostate. 1 Feb 2012;72(2), 147-156.
  5. Lin DW, Porter M, Montgomery B. Treatment and survival outcomes in young men diagnosed with prostate cancer: A population based cohort study. Cancer. 1 Jul 2009;115(13), 2863-2871.
  6. Moore SC, Peters TM, Ahn J. Age-specific physical activity and prostate cancer risk among white men and black men. Cancer. 1 Nov 2009; 115(21), 5060-5070.
  7. About Soft Tissue Sarcomas. Cancer Research UK. Published February 5, 2015. Accessed August 12, 2017.
  8. Types of Prostate Cancer. Cancer Research Society. Accessed August 12, 2017.
  9. About Rare Prostate Cancers. Prostate Cancer UK. Published January, 2016. Accessed August 12, 2017.